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[i] Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Questions and Answers About the EEOC’s Enforcement Guidance on the Consideration of Arrest and Conviction Records in Employment Decisions Under Title VII (2012), http://bit.ly/2wForHC
[ii] See U.S. Census Data (2016 Estimate); https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/community_facts.xhtml
[iii] Anastasia Christman & Michelle Natividad Rodriguez, Nat’l Emp’t Law Project, Research Supports Fair Chance Policies 1 & n.1 (Aug. 1, 2016), http://bit.ly/1sk48Nn
[iv] William Rhodes, Following Incarceration, Most Released Offenders Never Return to Prison (2014)
[v] Soc’y for Human Res. Mgmt., Background Checking—The Use of Criminal Background Checks in Hiring Decisions 3 (Jul. 19, 2012), http://bit.ly/2mhlrzh.
[vi] Scott H. Decker, “Criminal Stigma, Race, Gender, and Employment: An Expanded Assessment of the Consequences of Imprisonment for Employment” (National Institute of Corrections, 2014); http://bit.ly/2w3mVT1
[vii] Joan Petersilia, Nat’l Inst. of Justice, When Prisoners Return to the Community: Political, Economic, and Social Consequences 3 (2000), http://bit.ly/2sr7gao.
[viii] Bruce Western and Becky Pettit, “Collateral Costs: Incarceration’s Effect on Economic Mobility,” Washington, D.C.: The Pew Charitable Trusts, 2010; http://bit.ly/1YjcAau
[ix] Devah Pager, The Mark of a Criminal Record, 108 Am. J. of Sociology 937, 955-58 (2003), http://bit.ly/1vNQBJk.
[xi] Decker, supra.
[xii] Decker, supra.
[xiii] Sara Lageson, Legal Ambiguity in Managerial Assessments of Criminal Records, Law & Social Inquiry (2014), http://bit.ly/2wbZqb6
[xiv] Dylan Minor, Nicola Persico, and Deborah M. Weiss, “Criminal Background and Job Performance,” (2017), http://bit.ly/2vJT5jR
[xv] Jennifer Lundquist, Devah Pager, and Eiko Strader, “Does a Criminal Past Predict Worker Performance? Evidence from American’s Largest Employer,” Working Paper (2016)
[xvi] Cherrie Bucknor & Alan Barber, Ctr. for Econ. & Policy Research, The Price We Pay: Economic Costs of Barriers to Employment for Former Prisoners and People Convicted of Felonies 1 (2016), http://bit.ly/2atNJBu.
[xvii] “Economic Benefits of Employing Formerly Incarcerated Individuals in Philadelphia,” Philadelphia, PA: Economy League of Greater Philadelphia, 2011; http://bit.ly/2m2dei3
[xviii] American Civil Liberties Union, Back to Business: How Hiring Formerly Incarcerated Job Seekers Benefits Your Company (2017), http://bit.ly/2sforzk
[xix] Pew Center of the States, “State of Recidivism: The Revolving Door of America’s Prisons, 2011; http://bit.ly/2vJQoir
[xx] Mark T. Berg and Beth M. Huebner, “Reentry and the Ties that Bind: An Examination of Social Ties, Employment, and Recidivism,” Justice Quarterly (28), 2011; http://bit.ly/2w3dtis
[xxi] “Safer Foundation Three-Year Recidivism Study, 2008,” Chicago, IL: 2008, http://bit.ly/2ndo4T3
[xxii] Western, supra.